What’s the Process of a Great Spring Design?
Do you need a specific spring design? If so, it’s ideal to understand what the process is like and what useful tips you should keep in mind. Read more below.
Ever wondered what it takes to make a quality spring? Then it’s important to know the process of a great spring design.
Springs are useful devices, however, their design process is often a challenging one due to the conflicting priorities an application requires.
Nonetheless, knowing your way around it will help you design various spring types irrespective of your industry.
It’s even better when you fall back on a manufacturer that has the expertise to create quality springs while at the same time offering cost-effective solutions.
It’ll ensure you end up with the most successful spring design.
What are Springs?
Energy management devices used in compressors and a wide range of other machines are known as springs. These are elastic materials that store mechanical energy.
How to Design a Spring
Consider the following in order to design the most ideal spring for your application.
- Spring type
- Magnitude of force
- Deflection at forces
- Dimensional constraints
- Working conditions
Let’s take a look at each:
The different types of springs are:
Compression springs: These springs are the most common you’ll find out there. Compressions springs are compressed in their free position to produce a linear force. The wire is stressed in torsion during spring deflection.
Further, the normal working ranges vary between preload and the solid length of the spring.
Extension springs: Another type of spring that is just as common is the extension springs. These springs are stretched in service and the wire is stretched in torsion as is the case of the compression spring.
On the other hand, these springs need to be hooked to a mechanism or an attachment to enable their operation. The choice of attachment used must be considered since the mechanism can be a stress concentration.
Some types of attachments used to extension springs are hooks, threaded plugs, etc.
Leaf/bow springs: The leaf and bow springs can be compressed during installation. There are various ways to mount this type of spring. The arch of these springs changes when the mechanism moves. The force produced by a leaf/bow spring is measured by applying the load to the top of the arch.
Torsion springs: These are springs that create a rotational force within a mechanism. Also, torsion bars provide torque and may twist during deflection. All these spring types can be custom made to fit your application. Hence, you’ll be having the most ideal spring for your application.
Magnitude of Force
Here’s a breakdown of the force produced by compression, extension, torsion, and leaf/bow springs.
Compression Springs: In terms of the magnitude of force, these springs create a linear force under deflection. And the spring’s design can directly be impacted by the magnitude of the desired force.
Extension Springs: When it comes to the force extension springs produced, these devices create linear force. Here, helical extension springs are wounded with little or no space between coils. A linear force is then created once the spring has been stretched.
Leaf/Bow Springs: During compression of leaf springs, the spring’s arch changes at the application of loads. Loads can also be measured just like a compression spring can be, however, special fixtures may be needed for the measurement. When it comes to this type of spring, consideration has to be given to axle torque in regards to vehicle suspension.
Torsion Springs: The torque applied by torsion springs is known as bending moment. In cases where the torque values are critical, great consideration has to be given to the mounting and measuring method.
Deflection at Forces
Desired deflection and desired forces are terms that you need to understand while designing springs. Each of these can be calculated and the best way to go about it is to fall back on a reliable spring manufacturer.
On the other hand, varying operating deflections require that you set a minimum and maximum deflection of the application.
The desired deflection will handle the target spring rates and spring design.
There are issues peculiar to certain springs.
A breakdown of the most common issues depending on the spring type has been given below:
- The various working lengths desired.
- The amount of solid length it can allow.
- Whether it will fit over a shaft or not.
- Whether it will fit inside a bore or cylinder or not.
- The various desired working lengths.
- Whether it will fit a bore or not.
- Whether the end attachments can fit in other parts of the application.
The working conditions for your spring need to be considered in order to prevent spring failure. Factors such as temperature and corrosion must be considered.
In regards to the working temperature, it’s important to know the following:
- Extremely low temperatures can cause the material to become brittle.
- A material’s modulus decreases naturally at elevated temperatures.
- High temperatures can lead to loss of load or plastic deformation.
- The least to the highest materials with the most temperature resistance are carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, nickel alloys, and superalloys.
For corrosion, let these tips guide you:
- It may be useful to use coatings on springs, but coating is not always reliable.
- High strength stainless can fail rapidly in certain conditions.
- Various alloys are available for corrosive applications.
Create the Perfect Spring Design
Following the process of a great spring design will help you create a quality spring for your application. Not only will you make a successful spring, but create it on time.
There are also experienced spring manufacturers you can rely on especially if you’re out to get custom springs. These manufacturers have the skill and expertise to create springs suited for your application and one that will stand the test of time.
And when you get the springs, ensure you create good working conditions to prevent rapid failure.
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